Взята из “The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein” VOLUME 11 “Cumulative Index, Bibliography, List of Correspondence, Chronology, and Errata to Volumes 1-10” compiled by A. J. Kox, Tilman Sauer, Diana Kormos Buchwald, Rudy Hirschmann, Osik Moses, Benjamin Aronin, and Jennifer Stolper (2009), pp. 175 – 221.
This chronology contains references to: (1) significant events in Einstein’s life; (2) Einstein’s previously published and unpublished writings that appear in the Writings series of this edition. In the case of published papers, the date refers to receipt by a journal, unless otherwise indicated; (3) Einstein’s lectures, courses, attendance at significant academic, administrative, or other gatherings, and his travels; (4) major political events; (5) interviews with Einstein. Newspaper titles without a date refer to the issue published on the date of the entry. All excerpts and quotations are rendered in English. For the original texts and their bibliographic references, see the respective calendars in the documentary edition.
The following abbreviations are used:
DPG — Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (German Physical Society)
ETH — Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (Swiss Federal Polytechnic)
GDNÄ — Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte (Society of German Scientists and Physicians)
KWG — Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft (Kaiser Wilhelm Society)
KWIP — Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Physik (Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Physics)
M — German marks
PAW — Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften (Prussian Academy of Sciences)
Mar 14. Albert Einstein is born to Pauline (Koch) Einstein and Hermann Einstein at Bahnhofstr. B 135 in Ulm, Germany.
Jun 21. The Einstein family registers its residence at Müllerstr. 3, third floor, in Munich.
“It is true that my parents were worried because I started to talk only at a late age and they consulted a physician” (Einstein to Sybille Blinoff, 21 May 1954). On 1 July 1881, however, his grandmother Pauline Koch notes his “funny ideas” (Hoffmann 1976, p. 22).
Nov 18. Maria (Maja) Einstein, Einstein’s only sibling, is born in Munich.
“A wonder . . . I experienced as a child of 4 or 5 years, when my father showed me a compass. . . . I can still remember— or at least I believe I can remember —that this experience made a deep and lasting impression upon me” (Einstein 1979, p. 8).
Receives private instruction at home. He is still under the age for admission to a Munich public primary school.
Mar 31. The Einstein family registers at Rengerweg 14 (later renamed Adlzreiterstr.), first floor, in the Sendling district of Munich.
ca. Oct 1. Enters the Petersschule on Blumenstr., a Catholic primary school, probably beginning in the second grade. Private Jewish religious instruction also begins, leading “to a deep religiosity, which, however, found an abrupt ending at the age of 12” (Einstein 1979, p. 2).
“I had violin lessons between the ages of 6 & 14. . . . I only learned something at the age of 13, after I fell in love mostly with Mozart’s sonatas” (Einstein to Philipp Frank, draft letter, 1940).
ca. Oct 1. Enters class IIIa of the Petersschule. The class has 70 pupils.
Nov 12. Is transferred to class IIIb.
ca. Oct 1. Enters class IVb, which has 71 pupils.
Sep 26. Entrance examinations in religion, German, and arithmetic are held at the Luitpold-Gymnasium in Munich.
Oct 1. Enters the first year of the nine-year Luitpold-Gymnasium. The school year consists of a winter and a summer semester, and lasts from 1 October to 8 August (10 September to 14 July as of 1891).
Fall. Medical student Max Talmey meets Einstein at his parents’ home. They become close friends, and in the ensuing five years they discuss a number of mathematical, scientific, and philosophical topics.
“At the age of 12 I experienced a second wonder . . . in a little book dealing with Euclidean plane geometry. . .” (Einstein 1979, p. 8).
“At the age of 12–16, I familiarized myself with the elements of mathematics together with the principles of differential and integral calculus. . . . I also had the good fortune of getting to know the essential results and methods of the entire field of the natural sciences in an excellent popular expostion. . .” (Einstein 1979, p. 12).
Jun 1. The Einstein family registers temporarily in Planegg (near Munich), prior to moving to Milan. Einstein stays in Munich to finish high school.
Sep 10. Begins his seventh year at the Luitpold-Gymnasium.
Dec 29. Withdraws from the Luitpold-Gymnasium. Travels to Milan, where he joins his family at their home on via Ber-chet 2. Begins preparation for the entrance examinations to the Eidgenössische Polytechnische Schule (ETH) in Zurich.
Summer. Vacations with his family at Airolo, south of the Gotthard Pass. The family moves to via Foscolo 11 in Pavia. Einstein visits friends in Casteggio (near Pavia) and hikes across the Ligurian Alps to visit relatives in Genoa.
Oct 8. The entrance examinations to the ETH begin. Einstein is permitted to take the examinations, although he is two years under the regular age of admission.
Oct 14. The results of the ETH entrance examination are announced. Einstein is not admitted that year. He is advised to finish his secondary schooling in the Aargau Kantonsschule in Aarau.
Oct 26. Enrolls as a third-year pupil in the Technical School of the Aargau Kantonsschule three days after the third quarter started. While living in Aarau, he boards with the Winteler family.
Dec 23. The third quarter at the Kantonsschule ends. Einstein spends the Christmas holidays with the Wintelers.
“During this year in Aarau, the following question occurred to me: If one pursues a beam of light with the velocity c (velocity of light in a vacuum) one should observe such a beam of light as a spatially oscillatory electromagnetic field at rest. However, there seems to be no such thing! This was the first childlike thought experiment, that was concerned with the special theory of relativity . . .” (Einstein 1955, p. 146).
Jan 7. The fourth quarter at the Kantonsschule begins.
Jan 28. Released from Württemberg citizenship at his request, with his father’s consent. He remains stateless for five years.
Apr 6–8. Takes the third-year examinations at the Kantonsschule. The school year ends on 8 April. Einstein spends spring break with his family in Pavia.
Apr 29. The first quarter at the Kantonsschule begins. Einstein enters the fourth and final year.
Jun 24–26. Visits the Säntis massif in northeastern Switzerland during a school field trip.
Jul 9. The first quarter at the Kantonsschule ends. Einstein spends the summer holidays with his family in Pavia.
Aug 7. The second quarter at the Kantonsschule begins.
Fall. The Einstein family returns to Milan, where they live at via Bigli 21.
Sep 18, 19, 21. Takes the written Matura (high-school leaving) examinations at the Kantonsschule.
Sep 30. Takes the oral Matura examinations.
Oct 3. Is awarded the Matura certificate.
Oct 5–10. Reports to the director of the ETH for enrollment in section VI A.
Oct 12. Winter semester at ETH begins. Classes start on 20 October. “I had also already studied some theoretical physics when, . . . , I entered the Polytechnic Institute of Zurich” (Einstein 1979, p. 14). During this semester, Einstein meets fellow student Mileva Maric.
Oct 29. Registers at Unionstr. 4 in Zurich, where he boards with Henriette Hägi.
Dec 21. Winter vacation begins. Einstein spends the holidays with his family in Milan.
Jan 2. Classes at the ETH resume.
Mar 20. Classes at the ETH end. The winter semester ends on 27 March. Einstein spends the semester break with his family in Milan.
Apr 20. Summer semester at the ETH begins and classes start.
Jul 31. Classes at the ETH end. The summer semester ends on 5 August.
Oct 11. Winter semester at the ETH begins. Classes start on 19 October.
Dec 23. Winter vacation begins.
Jan 3. Classes at the ETH resume.
Mar 12. Classes at the ETH end. Winter semester ends on 19 March.
Apr 12. Summer semester at the ETH begins and classes start.
Jul 30. Classes at the ETH end. Summer semester ends on 4 August.
Sep 17. Registers at Klosbachstr. 87 in Zurich, where he rooms in the house of Stephanie Markwalder.
Oct 3. Start of the oral intermediate examination for the Diplom, which Einstein passes.
Oct 10. Winter semester at the ETH begins. Classes start on 18 October.
Dec 24. Winter vacation begins.
Jan 7. Classes at the ETH resume.
Mar 11. Classes at the ETH end. Winter semester ends on 18 March. Einstein spends the intersession with his family in Milan.
Apr 10. The summer semester at the ETH begins and classes start.
Jul 29. Classes at the ETH end. Summer semester ends on 3 Aug.
Aug 1-Sep 11. Spends the summer holidays with his mother, sister, and aunt in Mettmenstetten, climbs the Säntis with Maja, and visits Aarau.
Sep 11. Travels to Milan with his mother and sister.
Oct 9. Winter semester at the ETH begins. Classes start on 17 October.
Oct 16. Accompanies his sister to Aarau, where she enters the Teachers’ College for Women as a second-year pupil, and then proceeds to Zurich.
Oct 19. Applies for Swiss citizenship.
Nov 9. Registers at Unionstr. 4 in Zurich, where he again rooms in the house of Henriette Hägi.
Dec 23. Winter vacation begins.
Jan 6. Classes at the ETH resume.
Mar 17. Classes at the ETH end. Winter semester ends on 24 March.
Apr 17. Summer semester at the ETH begins and classes start.
Jul 27. Passes the oral final examination for the Diplom.
Jul 27-ca. Aug 9. Spends a holiday with his mother, sister, and aunt in Melchtal. He informs his mother that Maric and he plan to marry.
Jul 28. Receives his Diplom as Fachlehrer in mathematischer Richtung (teacher specialized in mathematics) from the ETH.
ca. Aug 9. Goes to Zurich to inquire about a position as Assistent to Professor Adolf Hurwitz at the ETH.
Aug 18. Travels to Milan.
early Sep. Einstein and his father visit the father’s power stations in Canneto and Isola della Scala, and also visit Venice.
Sep 21. Goes on a trip to Lago Maggiore.
Oct 7. Returns to Zurich, where he works on a doctoral dissertation during the winter semester.
Oct 11. Registers at Dolderstr. 17 in Zurich, Henriette Hägi’s new address.
Dec 13. Submits his first scientific paper, on capillarity, to the Annalen der Physik (“Conclusions Drawn from the Phenomena of Capillarity” [Vol. 2, Doc. 1]).
end of Dec. Spends the holiday season with his parents, returning to Zurich by 3 January.
Feb 21. Obtains Swiss citizenship.
Mar-Apr. Applies unsuccessfully for a position as Assistent to several physicists.
Mar 1. His first scientific paper is published in the Annalen der Physik.
Mar 13. Is classified for Swiss auxiliary military service on medical grounds.
Mar 23. Travels to Milan.
May 5. Leaves Milan for Winterthur. In Como, he joins Maric for a short trip over the Splügen Pass.
May 16-Jul 11. Is substitute teacher at the Technical School in Winterthur. On weekends, he often visits Maric in Zurich.
May 17. Registers his departure from Zurich to Winterthur.
May 21. Registers at Äußere Schaffhauserstr. 38 in Winterthur, where he rooms in the house of Maria Wachter.
July. Vacations with his mother in Mettmenstetten.
Jul 3. Applies unsuccessfully for a secondary-school position at the Technical School in Burgdorf.
late Jul. Applies unsuccessfully for a secondary-school position in Frauenfeld.
ca. Sep 15. Begins work as a tutor at the Lehr- und Erziehungsanstalt, Dr. Jakob Nüesch’s private boarding school in Schaffhausen. Begins work on a dissertation on molecular forces in gases.
Oct 2. Registers with the military authorities in Schaffhausen. While there, lives at three addresses: Fulachstr. 22 (Nüesch’s school), Fulachstr. 6 (Baumer family), Bahnhof-str. 102 (the Cardinal Inn).
Oct 14. Registers his departure from Winterthur for Schaffhausen.
early Nov. Visits Maric, who is in Stein am Rhein.
Nov 23. Submits doctoral dissertation to the University of Zurich.
Dec 18. Applies for a position at the Swiss Patent Office (Eidgenössisches Amt für geistiges Eigentum) in Bern.
ca. Dec 25. Spends the Christmas holiday with Maja in Mettmenstetten.
ca. Jan. Einstein and Maric’s daughter “Lieserl” is born
Feb 1. His dissertation fees are refunded by the University of Zurich, probably because he withdrew his dissertation.
Feb 11. Registers at Gerechtigkeitsgasse 32 in Bern, where he rooms in the house of Anna Sievers.
Apr 30. “On the Thermodynamic Theory of the Difference in Potentials between Metals and Fully Dissociated Solutions of Their Salts and on an Electrical Method for Investigating Molecular Forces” (Vol. 2, Doc. 2).
Jun 7. Registers at Thunstr. 43a, where he rooms in the house of the Dosch family.
Jun 16. Appointed Technical Expert third class at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern by the Swiss Federal Council on a trial basis (annual salary of 3,500 francs).
Jun 23. Begins work at Swiss Patent Office.
Jun 26. “Kinetic Theory of Thermal Equilibrium and the Second Law of Thermodynamics” (Vol. 2, Doc. 3).
Aug 14. Registers at Archivstr. 8, Bern, where he takes a room in the house of Bertha Hausmann-Louis.
Oct 10. Einstein’s father Hermann Einstein dies in Milan.
Jan 6. Marries Mileva Maric in Bern.
Jan 10. Registers residence at Tillierstr. 18, Bern.
Jan 26. “A Theory of the Foundations of Thermodynamics” (Vol. 2, Doc. 4).
Easter. Starts an informal study group, the “Olympia Academy,” with Maurice Solovine, which Conrad Habicht joins shortly thereafter.
May 2. Becomes member of the Naturforschende Gesellschaft of Bern.
Sep. Daughter Lieserl is registered.
Oct 29. Registers residence at Kramgasse 49, Bern.
Dec 5. Delivers a lecture to the Naturforschende Gesellschaft of Bern on “The Theory of Electromagnetic Waves.”
Mar 29. “On the General Molecular Theory of Heat” (Vol. 2, Doc. 5).
May 14. Son Hans Albert is born in Bern.
Sep 16. Receives a permanent appointment at the Swiss Patent Office (salary increase to 3,900 francs).
first half of Mar. Publishes reviews of G. Belluzzo, “Principles of Graphic Thermodynamics” (Vol. 2, Doc. 6); A. Fliegner, “On Clau-sius’s Law of Entropy” (Vol. 2, Doc. 7); W. McFadden Orr, “On Clausius’ Theorem for Irreversible Cycles, and on the Increase of Entropy” (Vol. 2, Doc. 8); G. H. Bryan, “The Law of Degradation of Energy as the Fundamental Principle of Thermodynamics” (Vol. 2, Doc. 9); N. N. Schiller, “Some Concerns Regarding the Theory of Entropy Increase Due to the Diffusion of Gases Where the Initial Pressures of the Latter Are Equal” (Vol. 2, Doc. 10); J. J. Weyrauch, “On the Specific Heats of Superheated Water Vapor” (Vol. 2, Doc. 11); J. H. van ’t Hoff, “The Influence of the Change in Specific Heat on the Work of Conversion” (Vol. 2, Doc. 12); and A. Giammarco, “A Case of Corresponding States in Thermodynamics” (Vol. 2, Doc. 13).
Mar 18. “On a Heuristic Point of View Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light” (Vol. 2, Doc. 14).
Apr 30. Completes doctoral dissertation at the University of Zurich: “A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions” (Vol. 2, Doc. 15).
May 11. “On the Movement of Small Particles Suspended in Stationary Liquids Required by the Molecular-Kinetic Theory of Heat” (Vol. 2, Doc. 16).
May 13. Registers residence at Besenscheuerweg 28, Bern.
second half of Jun. Publishes reviews of K. F. Slotte, “On the Heat of Fusion” (Vol. 2, Doc. 17) and “Conclusions Drawn from a Thermodynamic Equation” (Vol. 2, Doc. 18); E. Mathias, “The Constant a of Rectilinear Diameters and the Laws of Corresponding States” (Vol. 2, Doc. 19); M. Planck, “On Clau-sius’ Theorem for Irreversible Cycles, and on the Increase of Entropy” (Vol. 2, Doc. 20); E. Buckingham, “On Certain Difficulties Which Are Encountered in the Study of Thermodynamics” (Vol. 2, Doc. 21); and P. Langevin, “On a Fundamental Formula of the Kinetic Theory” (Vol. 2, Doc. 22).
Jun 30. “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” (Vol. 2, Doc. 23).
Jul 27. Einstein’s petition to receive the doctorate is approved by the Philosophical Faculty II of the University of Zurich.
late summer. Visits Belgrade with wife and son and spends time in Ujvidek (Novi Sad).
second half of Sep. Publishes reviews of H. Birven, Fundamentals of the Mechanical Theory of Heat (Vol. 2, Doc. 25); A. Ponsot, “Heat in the Displacement of the Equilibrium of a Capillary System” (Vol. 2, Doc. 26); and K. Bohlin, “On Impact Con- sidered as the Basis of Kinetic Theories of Gas Pressure and of Universal Gravitation” (Vol. 2, Doc. 27).
Sep 27. “Does the Inertia of a Body Depend upon Its Energy Content?” (Vol. 2, Doc. 24).
first half of Nov. Publishes reviews of G. Meslin, “On the Constant in Mariotte and Gay-Lussac’s Law” (Vol. 2, Doc. 28); and A. Fliegner, “The Efflux of Hot Water from Container Orifices” (Vol. 2, Doc. 29).
second half. Publishes reviews of J. J. Weyrauch, An Outline of the Theory of Heat. With Numerous Examples and Applications. Part 1 (Vol. 2, Doc. 30); and A. Fliegner, “On the Thermal Value of Chemical Processes” (Vol. 2, Doc. 31).
Dec 19. “On the Theory of Brownian Motion” (Vol. 2, Doc. 32).
Jan. Submits “Supplement” to “A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions” (Vol. 2, Doc. 33).
Jan 13. Participates in discussion following E. Stähli’s lecture on “Microscopy with Ultraviolet Rays and the Ultramicroscope” delivered to the Naturforschende Gesellschaft of Bern.
Jan 15. Receives doctorate from the University of Zurich.
Mar 10. Promoted to Technical Expert second class with a salary increase to 4,500 francs, effective 1 April.
Mar 13. “On the Theory of Light Production and Light Absorption” (Vol. 2, Doc. 34).
May 17. “The Principle of Conservation of Motion of the Center of Gravity and the Inertia of Energy” (Vol. 2, Doc. 35).
Jun 1. Registers residence at Aegertenstr. 53, Bern.
first half of Aug. Publishes review of M. Planck, Lectures on the Theory of Thermal Radiation (Vol. 2, Doc. 37).
Aug 4. “On a Method for the Determination of the Ratio of the Transverse and the Longitudinal Mass of the Electron” (Vol. 2, Doc. 36).
Nov 9. “Planck’s Theory of Radiation and the Theory of Specific Heat” (Vol. 2, Doc. 38).
Dec 12. “On the Limit of Validity of the Law of Thermodynamic Equilibrium and on the Possibility of a New Determination of the Elementary Quanta” (Vol. 2, Doc. 39).
Jan 22. “Theoretical Remarks on Brownian Motion” (Vol.2, Doc. 40).
Mar 3. “Correction to My Paper: ‘Planck’s Theory of Radiation etc.’” (Vol. 2, Doc. 42).
Mar 17. “On the Possibility of a New Test of the Relativity Principle” (Vol. 2, Doc. 41).
Mar 23. Lectures “On the Nature of the Movements of Microscopically Small Particles Suspended in Liquids” to Naturforschende Gesellschaft of Bern (Vol. 2, Doc. 43).
Apr 16. “Comments on the Note of Mr. Paul Ehrenfest: ‘The Translatory Motion of Deformable Electrons and the Area Law’” (Vol. 2, Doc. 44).
May 14. “On the Inertia of Energy Required by the Relativity Principle” (Vol. 2, Doc. 45), in which Einstein first uses the phrase “the equivalence of mass and energy.”
Jun 17. Makes first formal attempt to obtain Privatdozentur at the University of Bern.
Aug 1–10. Vacations with wife and son in Lenk, canton of Bern.
second half of Aug. Publishes review of J. J. Weyrauch, An Outline of the Theory of Heat. With Numerous Examples and Applications. Part 2 (Vol. 2, Doc. 46).
Oct 28. Decision on Privatdozentur at the University of Bern is postponed until Einstein submits a Habilitationsschrift.
Dec 4. “On the Relativity Principle and the Conclusions Drawn from It” (Vol. 2, Doc. 47), in which Einstein first formulates the equivalence principle, an idea that he would later call “the most fortunate idea of my life” (Vol. 7, Doc. 31, p. 265)
Dec 14. Inquires about a position at the Kantonsschule Zurich.
early Jan. Submits Habilitationsschrift: “Consequences for the Constitution of Radiation of the Energy Distribution Law of Black Body Radiation” to the University of Bern.
Jan 20. Applies for a position at the Technikum Winterthur.
Feb 15. “A New Electrostatic Method for the Measurement of Small Quantities of Electricity” (Vol. 2, Doc. 48).
Feb 24. The Philosophical Faculty II of the University of Bern approves Privatdozentur for Einstein.
Feb 27. Delivers inaugural lecture at the University of Bern, “On the Limit of the Validity of Classical Thermodynamics.”
ca. Feb 28. Receives venia docendi for theoretical physics and becomes Privatdozent at the University of Bern.
Mar 3. “Corrections to the Paper: ‘On the Relativity Principle and the Conclusions Drawn from It’” (Vol. 2, Doc. 49).
April. Begins a three-week collaboration with Jakob Laub.
Apr 1. “Elementary Theory of Brownian Motion” (Vol. 2, Doc. 50).
Apr 21. Summer semester at the University of Bern begins: Einstein teaches a course in the molecular theory of heat.
May 2. “On the Fundamental Electromagnetic Equations for Moving Bodies” (with Jakob Laub) (Vol. 2, Doc. 51).
May 13. “On the Ponderomotive Forces Exerted on Bodies at Rest in the Electromagnetic Field” (with Jakob Laub) (Vol. 2, Doc. 52).
May 16. Works in laboratory of Albert Gockel at the University of Fribourg.
Jun 28. Again in Fribourg in Gockel’s laboratory.
Jul 25. Summer semester at the University of Bern ends.
Aug 24. “Correction to the Paper: ‘On the Fundamental Electromagnetic Equations for Moving Bodies’” (with Jakob Laub) (Vol. 2, Doc. 53).
summer. Vacations with wife and son in the Bernese Oberland.
Oct 20. Winter semester at the University of Bern begins. Einstein teaches a course in the theory of radiation.
Dec 6. “Remarks on Our Paper: ‘On the Fundamental Electromagnetic Equations for Moving Bodies’” (with Jakob Laub) (Vol. 2, Doc. 54).
Jan 19. “Supplement” to “Remarks on Our Paper: ‘On the Fundamental Electromagnetic Equations for Moving Bodies’” (with Jakob Laub) (Vol. 2, Doc. 54).
Jan 22. “Comment on the Paper of D. Mirimanoff: ‘On the Fundamental Equations…’” (Vol. 2, Doc. 55).
Jan 23. “On the Present Status of the Radiation Problem” (Vol. 2, Doc. 56).
Feb 11. Lectures on “Elektrodynamik und Relativitätsprinzip” to the Physikalische Gesellschaft of Zurich.
Feb 23. A. Kleiner outlines the need for a second chair of physics at the University of Zurich and recommends that Einstein be appointed to it.
Mar 6. Winter semester at the University of Bern ends.
Apr 13. “On the Present Status of the Radiation Problem” (with Walter Ritz) (Vol. 2, Doc. 57).
May 7. Appointed Extraordinary Professor of Theoretical Physics at the University of Zurich at an annual salary of 4,500 fr.
May 24. Attends Fribourg physics colloquium.
Jul 6. Submits resignation to the Swiss Patent Office, effective 15 October 1909.
Jul 9. Granted an honorary doctorate in the physical sciences by the University of Geneva.
Aug. Vacations with wife and son in the Upper Engadine, canton of Graubünden.
Aug 4. Resigns Privatdozentur at the University of Bern.
Sep 20. Participates in a discussion following Henry Siedentopf’s lecture, “On Ultramicroscopic Images” (Vol. 2, Doc. 58), at the Salzburg meeting of the GDNÄ.
Sep 21. Participates in a discussion following Arthur Szarvassi’s lecture, “The Theory of Electromagnetic Phenomena in Moving Bodies and the Energy Principle” (Vol. 2, Doc. 59), at the GDNÄ. Lectures “On the Development of Our Views Concerning the Nature and Constitution of Radiation” (Vol. 2, Doc. 60) and participates in the following discussion (Vol. 2, Doc. 61), at the GDNÄ.
Sep 21. Participates in a discussion following Fritz Hasenöhrl’s lecture, “On the Transformation of Kinetic Energy into Radiation” (Vol. 2, Doc. 62), at the GDNÄ.
Oct 2. W. Ostwald nominates Einstein for the Nobel Prize in Physics, citing his contribution in relativity.
Oct 15. Assumes duties at the University of Zurich.
Oct 18. Winter semester at the University of Zurich begins. Einstein teaches an introductory course in mechanics (Vol. 3, Doc. 1) and a course in thermodynamics, while also conducting a physics seminar.
Oct 22. Registers change of address from Bern to Moussonstr. 12, Zurich.
Dec 2. Becomes a member of the Physikalische Gesellschaft of Zurich.
Dec 11. Delivers inaugural lecture at the University of Zurich: “On the Role of Atomic Theory in Recent Physics.”
Jan 15. Publishes first part of “The Principle of Relativity and Its Consequences in Modern Physics” (Vol. 3, Doc. 2).
before Jan 18. Writes a response to a draft version of M. Planck, “Zur Theorie der Wärmestrahlung” (Vol. 3, Doc. 3).
Feb 15. Publishes second part of “The Principle of Relativity and Its Consequences in Modern Physics” (Vol. 3, Doc. 2).
Mar 5. Winter semester at the University of Zurich ends.
Apr 19. Summer semester at the University of Zurich begins. Einstein teaches the continuation of the mechanics course and a course in the kinetic theory of heat (Vol. 3, Doc. 4), while also conducting a physics seminar and directing a laboratory for advanced students (with Alfred Kleiner).
Apr 21. Proposed as a candidate for a chair of theoretical physics at the German University in Prague.
May 7. Lectures “On the Theory of Light Quanta and the Question of the Localization of Electromagnetic Energy” to the Neu-chatel meeting of the Schweizerische Physikalische Gesellschaft (Vol. 3, Doc. 5).
Jul 14. The Zurich Governing Council grants Einstein a salary increase to 5,500 francs as of October in order to dissuade him from accepting an offer from the German University in Prague.
Jul 15. “On the Ponderomotive Forces Acting on a Magnetic Body Carrying a Current” (Vol. 3, Doc. 6).
Jul 28. Einstein’s second son Eduard is born in Zurich.
Aug 5. Summer semester at the University of Zurich ends.
Aug 29. “On a Theorem of the Probability Calculus and Its Application in the Radiation Theory” (with Ludwig Hopf) (Vol. 3, Doc. 7).
Aug 29. “Statistical Investigation of a Resonator’s Motion in a Radiation Field” (with Ludwig Hopf) (Vol. 3, Doc. 8).
Sep 6. Lectures on his “On the Ponderomotive Forces Acting on a Magnetic Body Carrying a Current” at the Basel meeting of the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft.
Sep 24. Travels to Vienna, to consult with the Austro-Hungarian authorities on a position at the German University of Prague, and also visits Ernst Mach, Victor Adler, and Anton Lampa.
Oct 8. “The Theory of the Opalescence of Homogeneous Fluids and Liquid Mixtures near the Critical State” (Vol. 3, Doc. 9).
Oct 17. Winter semester at the University of Zurich begins. Einstein teaches courses in electricity and magnetism (Vol. 3, Doc. 11) and in selected readings in theoretical physics, while also conducting a physics seminar and directing a laboratory for advanced students (with Alfred Kleiner).
Nov 1. E. Fischer, from Berlin, informs Einstein that he will receive a three-year annual grant of 5,000 M from an anonymous private donor (Franz Oppenheim).
Nov 2. Lectures “On the Boltzmann Principle and Some Consequences Derived from It” to the Physikalische Gesellschaft of Zurich.
Nov 14. Becomes member of the Naturforschende Gesellschaft of Zurich.
Nov 30. “Comments on P. Hertz’s Papers: ‘On the Mechanical Foundations of Thermodynamics’” (Vol. 3, Doc. 10).
Nov 30. “Comment on Eötvös’s Law” (Vol. 3, Doc. 12).
Nov 30. “A Relationship between Elastic Behavior and Specific Heat in Solids with a Monatomic Molecule” (Vol. 3, Doc. 13).
Dec 16. The Minister of Education, Count Karl von Stürgkh, petitions Emperor Franz Joseph for Einstein’s appointment to the chair of theoretical physics at the German University of Prague.
Jan 2. Completes “Comment on a Fundamental Difficulty in Theoretical Physics” (Vol. 3, Doc. 16).
Jan 6. Emperor Franz Joseph appoints Einstein to the chair of theoretical physics at the German University of Prague, effective 1 April 1911 with a salary of 9,872 crowns.
Jan 16. Delivers lecture “The Theory of Relativity” to Naturforschende Gesellschaft of Zurich (Vol. 3, Docs. 17 and 18).
Jan 20. Submits letter of resignation from the University of Zurich.
Jan 21. “Correction to My Paper: ‘A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions’” (Vol. 3, Doc. 14).
Jan 30. “Comment on My Paper: ‘A Relationship between the Elastic Behavior…’” (Vol. 3, Doc. 15).
Feb 10. Lectures on fluctuations before the student association of the University of Leyden (Vol. 3, Doc. 19), and meets with H. A. Lorentz, H. Kamerlingh Onnes, and W. H. Keesom.
Feb 21. Participates in a further discussion at the Naturforschende Gesellschaft of Zurich on “The Theory of Relativity” delivered on 16 January (Vol. 3, Doc. 17). Also gives impromptu statement on the light quantum hypothesis (Vol. 3, Doc. 20).
Mar 4. Winter semester at the University of Zurich ends.
Mar 30. Registers his move from Zurich to Prague.
Apr 1. Start of appointment at German University of Prague.
Apr 2. On his way to Prague, visits A. Sommerfeld and meets P. Debye in Munich.
Apr 3–4. With his family, takes temporary quarters in Hotel Viktoria, Jungmannstr., Prague.
Apr 5. Obtains an apartment at Trhebizskeho 7 in the Smichov district of Prague.
Apr 12. Assumes directorship of the Institute of Theoretical Physics of the German University.
Apr 20. Summer semester at German University begins. Einstein lectures on the mechanics of discrete mass points and on thermodynamics, while also conducting a physics seminar.
May 1. E. Nohel begins as assistant to Einstein at the Institute of Theoretical Physics.
May 4. “Elementary Observations on Thermal Molecular Motion in Solids” (Vol. 3, Doc. 21).
May 18. “On the Ehrenfest Paradox. Comment on V. Varichak’s Paper” (Vol. 3, Doc. 22).
May 24. Delivers a lecture on “Das Relativitätsprinzip” to the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Bohemia — “Lotos” in the Physics Institute of the German University.
Jun 21. “On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light” (Vol. 3, Doc. 23).
Jul 25. “Supplement to the Correction” (Vol. 3, Doc. 21).
Jul 31. Summer semester at the German University ends.
Aug 23. Takes oath of office as professor at the German University.
Aug 24. Begins negotiations with the University of Utrecht on a possible appointment there.
Sep. H. Zangger visits Einstein in Prague and discusses possibility of a position at the ETH.
Sep 25, 27. Participates in discussion of lectures by W. Nernst, A. Sommerfeld, and H. Rubens at the Karlsruhe meeting of the GDNÄ (Vol. 3, Doc. 24).
Oct 1. Winter semester at the German University begins. Einstein teaches courses in mechanics and thermodynamics, and also conducts seminar discussions.
Oct 9–14. Gives a series of eight lectures, “Über einige neuere Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der theoretischen Physik” to a conference for secondary-school teachers in Zurich.
Oct 14. Travels to Bern to consult with Ludwig Forrer on a call to the ETH.
Oct 18. Returns to Prague.
Oct 29. Arrives in Brussels for first Solvay Congress.
Oct 30. Contributes discussion remarks at the Solvay Congress (Vol. 3, Doc. 25).
Nov. H. Poincare recommends Einstein for a position at the ETH.
Nov 2 or 3. Lectures at Solvay Congress on “The Current State of the Problem of Specific Heat” (Vol. 3, Doc. 26) and participates in discussion (Vol. 3, Doc. 27).
Nov 17. M. Curie recommends Einstein for a position at the ETH.
Dec 19–25. Meets in Zurich with R. Gnehm, president of the ETH, to finalize details of an appointment there.
Dec 21. W. Ostwald again nominates Einstein for Nobel Prize in Physics, citing his contribution in relativity.
Begins work on a manuscript on electrodynamics and relativity theory (Vol. 4, Doc. 1).
Jan. E. Pringsheim, C. Schaefer, and W. Wien propose that H. A. Lorentz and Einstein share the 1912 Nobel Prize for the development of the relativity principle.
Jan 18. “Thermodynamic Proof of the Law of Photochemical Equivalence” (Vol. 4, Doc. 2).
Jan 30. Appointed Professor of Theoretical Physics at the ETH with annual salary of 11,000 francs.
Feb 3. Petitions Minister of Education for release from position at German University as of 30 September.
Feb 23. Has first meeting with P. Ehrenfest.
Feb 26. “The Speed of Light and the Statics of the Gravitational Field” (Vol. 4, Doc. 3).
Mar 23. “On the Theory of the Static Gravitational Field” (Vol. 4, Doc. 4).
Mar 28. Winter semester at the German University ends.
Apr 11. Summer semester at the German University begins. Einstein teaches courses in the mechanics of continua and the molecular theory of heat, and conducts seminar discussions.
Apr 15–22. Visits W. Nernst, F. Haber, E. Warburg, H. Rubens, and E. Freundlich in Berlin. Discusses scientific matters with them, and considers a position at the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt (which he will decline). Also visits his aunt and uncle, Fanny and Rudolf Einstein, at whose residence in Haberlandstr. he becomes reacquainted with his cousin Elsa Löwenthal (nee Einstein).
May 12. “Supplement to My Paper: ‘Thermodynamic Proof of the Law of Photochemical Equivalence’” (Vol. 4, Doc. 5).
May 23. “Note Added in Proof” (Vol. 4, Doc. 4).
May 30. “Response to a Comment by J. Stark: ‘On an Application of Planck’s Fundamental Law . . .’” (Vol. 4, Doc. 6).
Jun 1. Is released from his position at the German University as of the end of September.
July. “Is There a Gravitational Effect Which Is Analogous to Electrodynamic Induction?” (Vol. 4, Doc. 7).
Jul 4. “Relativity and Gravitation. Reply to a Comment by M. Abraham” (Vol. 4, Doc. 8).
Jul 25. Departs Prague for Zurich to take up position at the ETH.
Jul 31. Summer semester at German University ends.
ca. Aug. Begins research notes on a generalized theory of relativity (Vol. 4, Doc. 10) and, probably at the same time, his collaboration with M. Grossmann.
ca. Aug 1. Einstein and others call for the creation of a Society for Positivistic Philosophy.
Aug 10. Registers his change of residence from Prague to Hofstr. 116, Zurich.
Sep 2. “Comment on Abraham’s Preceding Discussion ‘Once Again, Relativity and Gravitation’” (Vol. 4, Doc. 9).
Oct 3. Winter semester at the ETH begins. Einstein teaches courses in analytical mechanics and thermodynamics, and a physics se-minar.
Oct 29. Supports a request by O. Stern to be considered Einstein’s collaborator (Mitarbeiter) rather than a student of the ETH.
Dec 19. Is asked to serve as examiner for students working toward a degree in mathematics at the ETH.
Dec 30. W. Ostwald again nominates Einstein for the Nobel Prize in Physics, citing his contribution to relativity; B. Naunyn and W. Wien lend their support.
Jan 5. “Some Arguments for the Assumption of Molecular Agitation at Absolute Zero” (with Otto Stern) (Vol. 4, Doc. 11).
Jan 16. Asked to administer Diplom examinations in theoretical physics.
Mar 7-8. Lecture on “Energy at Absolute Zero and Theoretical Formulae of Radiation” at Zurich meeting of the Swiss Physical Society.
Mar 20. “Remark Added in Proof (with Otto Stern) (Vol. 4, Doc. 11).
Mar 22. Winter semester at the ETH ends.
Mar 27. Lecture on “Thermodynamic Deduction of the Law of Photochemical Equivalence” at Paris meeting of the French Physical Society (Vol. 4, Doc. 12).
Apr 15. Summer semester at the ETH begin. Einstein teaches courses in the mechanics of continua and the molecular theory of heat, a physics seminar, and supervises exercises in physics (with P. Weiss).
May. Begins working with M. Besso on calculations on the motion of the perihelion of Mercury (Vol. 4, Doc. 14).
before May 28. Completes “Outline of a Generalized Theory of Relativity and of a Theory of Gravitation” (with M. Grossmann) (Vol. 4, Doc. 13).
May 29. M. Planck and others announce in the physical-mathematical class of the Prussian Academy of Sciences (PAW) that they will be proposing Einstein for election at the next class meeting.
June–July. Visited by P. Ehrenfest and G. Nordström in Zurich.
Jun 3. L. Koppel commits to donate 6,000 M a year for twelve years to raise Einstein’s salary at the PAW from 6,000 M to 12,000 M.
Jul 3. Physical-mathematical class of the PAW votes 21:1 in favor of Einstein’s nomination.
mid-July. M. Planck, W. Nernst, and their wives visit Einstein in Zurich. The scientists offer him membership in the PAW and most likely discuss with him the creation of a theoretical physics institute of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft (KWG) under his direction, and a professorship at the University of Berlin without teaching obligations.
Jul 24. The plenum of the PAW votes on the Einstein nomination, with 44 in favor and 2 dissenting.
Aug 4. Begins a walking tour with M. Curie through the Engadine and the Val Bregaglia in eastern Switzerland.
Aug 7. Summer semester at the ETH ends.
Sep 9. Lectures to the Frauenfeld meeting of the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft on the “Physical Foundations of a Theory of Gravitation” (Vol. 4, Doc. 16).
mid-Sep. Visits wife’s family in Ujvidek (Novi Sad).
Sep 23. Lecture “On the Present State of the Problem of Gravitation” at the Vienna meeting of the GDNÄ (Vol. 4, Docs. 17 and 18).
Sep 24–Oct 9. Visits Berlin, Heilbronn, and Ulm before returning to Zurich.
Oct 2. Winter semester at the ETH begins. Einstein teaches courses in electricity and magnetism (Vol. 4, Doc. 19), and on ray optics and diffraction, conducts a physics seminar, and supervises exercises in physics (with P. Weiss).
before Oct 21. Writes “Theoretical Atomistics” and “Relativity Theory” for Die Kultur der Gegenwart, published in 1915 (Vol. 4, Docs. 20 and 21).
Oct 27-31. Participates in a discussion on papers delivered at second Solvay Congress (Vol. 4, Doc. 22).
Nov 7. “Max Planck as Scientist” (Vol. 4, Doc. 23).
Nov 12. Emperor Wilhelm II confirms the election of Einstein to the PAW.
Nov 22. The PAW informs Einstein of his election and of his annual salary of 12,000 M, moving expenses, and survivor benefits.
Dec 6. Swiss School Council accepts Einstein’s resignation from the ETH.
Dec 7. Accepts offer of membership in the PAW and sets early April 1914 as date for his move to Berlin.
Dec 11. “Supplementary Response to a Question by Mr. Reißner” (Vol. 4, Doc. 24).
after Christmas. Mileva Einstein-Marie travels to Berlin to find housing for the family. She stays with the Haber family.
Jan. B. Naunyn and O. Chwolson nominate Einstein for Nobel Prize in Physics, the former citing contributions in relativity, diffusion, gravitation, the latter citing his general contribution to theoretical physics.
Jan 15. Delivers lecture on “Neues zum Problem der Gravitation” the seventh lecture in the 52nd cycle of town-hall lectures (“Rathausvorträge”) in Zurich.
Jan 24. “On the Foundations of the Generalized Theory of Relativity and the Theory of Gravitation” (Vol. 4, Doc. 25).
Jan 30. “Comments” (Vol. 4, Doc. 26) on “Outline of a Generalized Theory of Relativity and of a Theory of Gravitation” (with M. Grossmann) (Vol. 4, Doc. 13) is published.
early Feb. W Nernst and others propose that Einstein be named permanent secretary of a scientific committee to supervise and administer a theoretical physics institute of the KWG.
Feb 9. Lecture “On the Theory of Gravitation” at meeting of Naturforschende Gesellschaft of Zurich (Vol. 4, Doc. 28).
Feb 19. “Nordström’s Theory of Gravitation from the Point of View of the Absolute Differential Calculus” (with A. D. Fokker) (Vol. 4, Doc. 28).
Feb 28. Completes manuscript of “A Method for the Statistical Evaluation of Observations of Apparently Irregular, Quasi-periodic Processes” (Vol. 4, Doc. 29) before this date; and delivers a version of it to the Basel meeting of the Schweizerische Physikalische Gesellschaft (Vol. 4, Doc. 30).
March. Completes “On the Relativity Problem” (Vol. 4, Doc. 31).
Mar 21. Departs Zurich on last day of winter semester.
Mar 22. Visits uncle Caesar Koch in Antwerp.
Mar 23. Arrives in Leyden to visit P. Ehrenfest. Also visits H. A. Lorentz and meets W. de Sitter.
Mar 29. Arrives in Berlin. Is given an office in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, directed by F. Haber. Lives at Ehrenbergstr. 33, in BerlinDahlem.
Mar 31 or Apr 1. Mileva Einstein-Maric departs with the children for Locarno, where Eduard Einstein recuperates from a lengthy illness.
Apr 6. Registers his change of address from Zurich to Berlin.
Apr 16. Participates for the first time in a meeting of the physical-mathematical class of the PAW.
Apr 18. Mileva Einstein-Maric and the children return to Zurich, then join Einstein in Berlin.
Apr 23. Participates for the first time in plenary session of the PAW.
Apr 26. “On the Principle of Relativity” (Vol. 6, Doc. 1).
May 8. Becomes a member of the advisory committee of the DPG.
May 16. Receives an academician’s salary of 900 M, retroactive to April 1, in addition to his salary of 12,000 M.
May 29. “Covariance Properties of the Field Equations of the Theory of Gravitation Based on the Generalized Theory of Relativity” (with M. Grossmann) (Vol. 6, Doc. 2).
May 30. Ehrenfest pays a visit. Four days later, they meet J. Petzoldt.
Jul 2. Gives inaugural lecture (Vol. 6, Doc. 3) to the PAW during Leibniz commemorative festivities in the Academy’s new building at Unter den Linden 38.
mid-Jul. Einstein-Maric moves out of Ehrenbergstr. residence with the children and stays at the Habers. Memorandum of reconciliation is drawn up, but divorce is decided upon and a contract drafted.
Jul 16. Co-signs nominations of R. Willstätter and F. Haber for membership in physical-mathematical class of the PAW.
Jul 18. “Remarks on P. Harzer’s Paper: ‘On the Dragging of Light in Glass and on Aberration’” (Vol. 6, Doc. 4).
Jul 21. Co-signs nomination of K. F. Braun for membership in the PAW.
Jul 24. Lectures at the DPG on the thermodynamical derivation of Planck’s formula of radiation and on Nernst’s heat theorem. Published as “Contributions to Quantum Theory” (Vol. 6, Doc. 5).
Jul 29. Accompanied by M. Besso, Einstein-Maric and the children leave Berlin for Zurich, after an agreement to a separation from Einstein—instead of a divorce—is reached.
Aug 1. Germany declares war on Russia.
Aug 12. The establishment of the KWI is postponed indefinitely.
Aug 18. Completes “Response to Paul Harzer’s Reply” (Vol. 6, Doc. 6).
Oct 16–Mar 15. Teaches course on relativity at the University of Berlin during the winter semester (Vol. 6, Doc. 7). Collaborative experimental work with W. J. de Haas on molecular currents at the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt.
mid-Oct. “Manifesto to the Europeans” (with G. Nicolai and W. Foerster) (Vol. 6, Doc. 8) in response to the “Manifesto of the 93.”
Oct 23. Delivers lecture to the DPG on a criterion for recognizing periodic processes.
Oct 29. Submits “The Formal Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity” (Vol. 6, Doc. 9) to the PAW.
Nov 5. Communicates two papers by Schwarzschild at PAW.
Nov 27. Publishes reviews of A. Brill, The Principle of Relativity: An Introduction to the Theory, and H. A. Lorentz, The Principle of Relativity: Three Lectures . . . (Vol. 6, Docs. 10 and 11).
before Dec 2. Moves from Ehrenbergstr., Berlin-Dahlem, to Wittelsbacherstr. 13, Berlin-Wilmersdorf.
Dec 10. With E. Fischer, E. Warburg, and H. Rubens, sponsors proposal to award the Helmholtz Medal to M. Planck. With forty other members of the PAW, co-signs document addressed to Chantepie de la Saussaye, president of the Royal Academy of Sciences (Amsterdam), protesting a letter “containing insulting words about the Netherlands” published in a Dutch weekly on 11 October by an honorary professor at the University of Berlin.
Dec 18. Lectures to the DPG on an experimental proof of the theory of paramagnetism.
Jan/Feb. With W. J. de Haas, performs experiments on the gyromagnetic effect at the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt as guest of its second section (Electricity and Magnetism).
Jan 19. F. Ehrenhaft nominates Einstein for Nobel Prize, citing work in Brownian motion, and special and general relativity.
Feb 6. “Expert Opinion on Legal Dispute between Anschütz & Co. and Sperry Gyroscope Company” (Vol. 6, Doc. 12).
Feb 19. Lectures to the DPG on a direct proof of Ampere’s molecular currents.
Mar 25. Lectures “Über den Grundgedanken der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie und Anwendungen dieser Theorie in der Astronomie” to the physical-mathematical class of the PAW.
Mar 26. Appears before Berlin court to give expert patent opinion in Anschütz vs. Sperry dispute.
Apr 10. Submits expanded version of his lecture on Ampere’s molecular currents, “Experimental Proof of Ampere’s Molecular Currents” (with W. J. de Haas) (Vol. 6, Doc. 13).
Apr 16-Aug 15. Lectures on the theory of relativity at the University of Berlin, Thursdays, 2–4 P.M.
Apr 23. “Experimental Proof of the Existence of Ampere’s Molecular Currents” (with W. J. de Haas) (Vol. 6, Doc. 14).
May 7. “Experimental Proof of Ampere’s Molecular Currents” (Vol. 6, Doc. 15) is published.
May 10. “Correction of My Joint Paper with J. W. de Haas: ‘Experimental Proof of Ampere’s Molecular Currents’” (Vol. 6, Doc. 16).
May 14. The Dutch version of the Ampere current paper is published. Reelected member of the advisory committee of the DPG.
ca. Jun. Becomes member of the Bund “Neues Vaterland.”
Jun 2. Lectures on relativity of motion and gravitation to Society of Friends of the Berlin-Treptow Observatory.
Jun 15. “Comment on the Essay Submitted by Knapp: ‘The Shearing of the Light-Ether…’” (Vol. 6, Doc. 17).
Jun 24. “Response to a Paper by M. von Laue: ‘A Theorem in Probability Calculus and Its Application to Radiation Theory’” (Vol. 6, Doc. 18).
Jun 28–Jul 5. Spends a week in Göttingen to give six lectures on general relativity under the auspices of the Wolfskehl Foundation.
Jun 29. Lectures “Über Gravitation” to Mathematical Society of Göttingen.
Jul 10. Observes experiment in Kiel on stability of the Sperry compass in the patent dispute Anschütz vs. Sperry.
Jul 15. Vacations in Sellin (Rügen) with Berlin relatives.
Jul 22. Returns to Berlin to attend a session of the PAW.
Jul 24–Aug 5. Continues vacation in Sellin.
Jul 27. With 90 others, co-signs an open letter to Chancellor Bethmann Hollweg opposing the annexationist policy advocated in the so-called Seeberg memorandum.
Aug 7. “Supplementary Expert Opinion” on Anschütz vs. Sperry Gyroscope (Vol. 6, Doc. 19). Repeats the Ampere current experiment with alternating current, but a week later breaks off experiment because of optical difficulties.
Aug 29. Departs on a trip to Switzerland, with layover in Heilbronn.
Sep 16. With H. Zangger, meets R. Rolland in Park-Hotel Mooser, Vevey, Switzerland.
Sep 22. Returns to Berlin.
Oct 16–Mar 15, 1916 Holds course on statistical mechanics and Boltzmann’s principle at the University of Berlin, Thursdays, 2–4 P.M.
Oct 23–Nov 11. “My Opinion of the War” (Vol. 6, Doc. 20).
Nov 4. Submits “On the General Theory of Relativity” (Vol. 6, Doc. 21) to the PAW.
Nov 11. Submits “On the General Theory of Relativity (Addendum)” (Vol. 6, Doc. 22) to the PAW.
Nov 15. “Comment on Our Paper: ‘Experimental Proof of Ampere’s Molecular Currents’” (with W. J. de Haas) (Vol. 6, Doc. 23).
Nov 18. Submits “Explanation of the Perihelion Motion of Mercury from the General Theory of Relativity” (Vol. 6, Doc. 24) to the PAW.
Nov 25. Submits “The Field Equations of Gravitation” (Vol. 6, Doc. 5) to the PAW.
Nov 28. In conversation with H. Struve, director of the Observatory in Potsdam, requests that E. Freundlich be permitted to perform experiments there for testing general relativity.
Dec 8. At H. Rubens’s Wednesday physics colloquium at the University, presents the first part of a lecture on his theory of gravitation.
Dec 17. Speaks to the DPG on the general theory of relativity and on its explanation of the motion of the perihelion of Mercury.
Dec 18. Elected corresponding member of the Royal Society of Göttingen after being nominated on 5 December by D. Hilbert, F. Klein, C. Runge, W. Voigt, and E. Wiechert.
Dec 22. At H. Rubens’s Wednesday colloquium, presents the second part of a lecture on his theory of gravitation.
Jan 13. Communicates Schwarzschild 1916a to the PAW.
Jan 14. Lectures to the DPG, “Zur Begründung der Tetrode-Sackurschen Bestimmung der Entropiekonstanten,” which may be a variant of “On the Theory of Tetrode and Sackur for the Entropy Constant” (Vol. 6, Doc. 26).
Jan 20. Co-signs proposal to award the Leibniz Gold Medal for 1916 to O. von Schjerning, director of the Kaiser-WilhelmAkademie für das Militärärztliche Bildungswesen.
Feb 3. Submits “A New Formal Interpretation of Maxwell’s Field Equations of Electrodynamics” (Vol. 6, Doc. 27) to the PAW.
Feb 6. Proposes divorce from Mileva Einstein-Maric after a separation of a year and a half.
Feb 7. The Bund “Neues Vaterland” is outlawed for the duration of the war.
Feb 24. Communicates Schwarzschild 1916b to the PAW.
Feb 25. Performs a demonstration experiment at the DPG for the proof of Ampere’s molecular currents, published as “A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate Ampere’s Molecular Currents” (Vol. 6, Doc. 28).
Mar 8. A. Braumüller, Kommandant der Residenz Berlin, asks whether Einstein, a Swiss citizen, is a salaried member of the PAW and, if so, requests copies of his file. Complains that, when traveling, Einstein has repeatedly neglected to register with the police, either in Berlin or at his destination, which he is obliged to do as a national of a neutral foreign country.
Mar 14. Obituary for E. Mach (Vol. 6, Doc. 29).
Mar 16. The PAW, with M. Planck’s signature, releases copies of Einstein’s personal file to the Berlin Kommandantur.
Mar 20. “The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity” (Vol. 6, Doc. 30). An unpublished “Appendix” supplies his “Formulation of the Theory on the Basis of a Variational Principle” (Vol. 6, Doc. 31).
Mar 23. Lectures “Über einige anschauliche Überlegungen aus dem Gebiete der Relativitätstheorie” to the PAW.
Apr 6. Begins three-week vacation in Switzerland.
May 5. Succeeds Haber as chairman of the DPG.
Jun 2. Delivers two lectures to the DPG on a thermodynamic derivation of the photochemical equivalence law and on an elementary explanation of water waves and of flight.
Jun 21. At H. Rubens’s Wednesday colloquium, reviews Gans’s theory of diamagnetism and paramagnetism.
Jun 22. Presents his “Approximative Integration of the Field Equations of Gravitation” (Vol. 6, Doc. 32) to the PAW.
Jun 29. Eulogizes K. Schwarzschild at a public session of the PAW (Vol. 6, Doc. 33).
ca. Jul 3. Einstein-Maric is confined to bed in Zurich for more than a year.
Jul 13. Elected a member of the commission of the PAW to decide the Schwarzschild succession.
Jul 17. “Emission and Absorption of Radiation in Quantum Theory” (Vol. 6, Doc. 34).
Jul 21. Delivers two lectures to the DPG on the quantum theory of absorption and emission of radiation, and on directed wireless telegraphy.
ca. Aug. “Preface” to E. Freundlich, The Foundations of Einstein’s Theory of Gravitation (Vol. 6, Doc. 35).
Aug 11. Review of H. A. Lorentz, Statistical Theories in Thermodynamics: Five Lectures . . ., and Einstein’s “Summary of The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity” (Vol. 6, Docs. 36 and 37).
after Aug 24. “On the Quantum Theory of Radiation” (Vol. 6, Doc. 38) is published.
Aug 25. “Elementary Theory of Water Waves and of Flight” (Vol. 6, Doc. 39) is published.
Sep 27. Begins two-week visit to Holland.
Oct 16–Mar 15, 1917. Offers a course on relativity at the University of Berlin, Thursdays, 2–4 P.M.
Oct 19. “On Friedrich Kottler’s Paper: ‘On Einstein’s Equivalence Hypothesis and Gravitation’” (Vol. 6, Doc. 40).
Oct 26. Submits “Hamilton’s Principle and the General Theory of Relativity” (Vol. 6, Doc. 41) to the PAW.
Oct 27. Delivers first part of a lecture on the quantum theory of radiation to the DPG, presumably based on his paper “On the Quantum Theory of Radiation” (Vol. 6, Doc. 38).
Nov 10. Delivers second part of lecture on the quantum theory of radiation to DPG.
Nov 23. With H. Rubens, supports M. Planck’s suggestion in the physical-mathematical class of the PAW that A. Sommer-feld’s paper (Sommerfeld 1916a) be awarded the Helmholtz Prize.
Dec. Completes On the Special and the General Theory of Relativity (A Popular Account) (Vol. 6, Doc. 42).
Dec 20–21. Signs contract with F. Vieweg for the publication of a book entitled “Die Grundgedanken der speziellen und allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie in gemeinverständlicher Darstellung,” completed 1 February 1917.
Dec 30. Is appointed to the board of trustees of the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt, to the seat formerly held by K. Schwarzschild.
Jan 7. A. Haas nominates Einstein for Nobel Prize, citing work in the theory of gravitation.
Jan 18. A. von Harnack announces Franz Stock’s intention of donating 540,000 M to the KWG. The interest from war bonds in the amount of 500,000 M is to be applied toward the planned KWI, the establishment of which had been broken off at the beginning of the war.
Jan 21. P. Weiss nominates Einstein for Nobel Prize, citing work in theoretical and experimental physics.
Jan 23. E. Warburg nominates Einstein for Nobel Prize, citing work in quantum theory, relativity theory, and gravitation.
Feb. First serious symptoms of chronic gastric condition.
Feb 8. Submits “Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity” (Vol. 6, Doc. 43) to the PAW.
Feb 17. “Reply to the Plaintiff’s Written Statement of 27 December, 1916” (Vol. 6, Doc. 44).
Mar 14. Participates for the first time in a meeting of the board of trustees of the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt.
Mar 29. His “cat’s back” airfoil is tested in the wind tunnel of the Versuchsanstalt für Flugtechnik, Göttingen.
Apr 13. Prussian Minister of Education appoints Einstein for one year, with M. Born and H. Rubens, to a ministerial oversight committee for physics of the Königlich Wissenschaftliches Prüfungsamt in Berlin, which examines candidates for academic teaching positions. Evaluates F. Danziger’s “Der Kreislauf im Weltall” submitted 28 February.
Apr 16-Aug 15. Continues lectures on the theory of relativity at the University of Berlin, Thursdays, 2-4 P.M.
Apr 27. Reports to the DPG on an elementary deduction of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation.
May 11. Reelected chairman of the DPG. Lectures “On the Quantum Theorem of Sommerfeld and Epstein” (Vol. 6, Doc. 45).
May 25. Chairs session of DPG at which F. Ehrenhaft lectures on subelectrons.
Jun 4. The Imperial Academy of Sciences in Vienna announces that the Baumgartner Prize in the amount of 3,000 crowns is awarded to Einstein and W. J. De Haas for “A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate Ampere’s Molecular Currents” (Vol. 6, Doc. 28).
Jun 26. Attends meeting of Koppel-Foundation representatives and senate of KWG, at which it is decided to establish the KWIP on 1 October, with Einstein as director.
Jun 29. Departs for summer vacation in Switzerland, combined with a lecture in Frankfurt and a visit to his mother in Heilbronn.
Jul 6. The KWG grants 50,000 M annually to the KWIP. Einstein is appointed director, with an annual salary of 5,000 M. The organization of the institute and the composition of the boards of trustees and directors, the latter consisting exclusively of “physicists” (F. Haber, W. Nernst, M. Planck, H. Rubens, E. Warburg) are provisional (for the duration of the war).
after Aug 29. Rozsika (Zorka) Maric reports from Zurich on arrival at her sick sister Mileva’s home to help in the household.
Sep 12. In Berlin, takes up new residence at Haberlandstr. 5.
before Oct 14. Signs “Manifesto for a Peace of Reconciliation,” addressed to the German chancellor by University of Berlin professors.
Oct 1. Takes up duties as director of the KWIP.
Oct 1–Feb 2, 1918. Offers a course on statistical mechanics and quantum theory at the University of Berlin, Thursdays, 2–4 P.M.
Oct 26. Attends meeting of the Organization of the Like-Minded (Vereinigung Gleichgesinnter) at the home of Werner Weisbach in Berlin.
Nov 2. “Review of Hermann von Helmholtz: Two Lectures on Goethe” (Vol. 6, Doc. 46).
Nov 16. Reviews for the DPG the scientific papers of the late M. von Smoluchowski, and lectures on the problem of boundary conditions in the general theory of relativity.
Nov 22. Submits “A Derivation of Jacobi’s Theorem” (Vol. 6, Doc. 47) to the PAW.
Nov 26. Joint constituent meeting of the boards of trustees and directors of the KWIP. W. von Siemens is elected chairman of the board of trustees; Einstein, chairman of the board of directors. The responsibilities of the two boards are budgetary for the former, and strictly scientific for the latter.
Dec 4. Attends meeting of the Organization of the Like-Minded.
Dec 14. “Obituary for Marian von Smoluchowski” (Vol. 6, Doc. 48).
Dec 16–20. Announcement on the founding of the KWIP in local and national newspapers.
Dec 21. Applications for research grants from the KWI P begin to arrive from various researchers.
Dec 25. “The Nightmare” (Vol. 6, Doc. 49).
ca. Dec 25. Becomes bedridden for several months with an abdominal ulcer.
Jan 4. F. Ehrenhaft nominates Einstein for Nobel Prize, referring to his previous proposal, to the general theory of relativity developed in the meantime, and to the confirmation of Ampere’s molecular theory.
Jan 17. E. Warburg nominates Einstein for Nobel Prize, citing work in quantum theory, relativity theory, and gravitation. Further proposals are made by W. Wien, M. von Laue, E. Meyer, and S. Meyer.
Jan 20. A memorandum marked “secret” by Von Berge, chief of staff, Oberkommando in den Marken, to the police president of Berlin, informing him that passport applications by well-known pacifists and radical Social Democrats need prior approval from the military command. Einstein’s name was listed ninth on the blacklist of thirty-one drawn up by the political division of the Berlin police.
Jan 31. Because of Einstein’s illness, M. Planck submits and comments on Einstein’s paper “On Gravitational Waves” (Vol. 7, Doc. 1) and communicates Freundlich 1918 to the plenary session of the PAW in his stead.
Feb 5. “Note on E. Schrödinger’s Paper ‘The Energy Components of the Gravitational Field’” (Vol. 7, Doc. 2).
Mar 3. “Comment on Schrödinger’s Note ‘On a Solution of the Generally Covariant Gravitational Equations’” (Vol. 7, Doc. 3).
Mar 6. “On the Foundations of the Theory of General Relativity” (Vol. 7, Doc. 4).
Mar 7. On behalf of the ailing Einstein, M. Planck submits “Critical Remarks on a Solution of the Gravitational Equations Presented by De Sitter” (Vol. 7, Doc. 5) to the PAW.
Mar 17. The philosophical faculty of the University of Göttingen awards him the biannual Vahlbruch Prize in the amount of 11,000 M, given to German-speaking authors of significant papers in the natural sciences.
Mar 21. “Can Refractive Indexes of Bodies Be Experimentally Established for X-Rays?” (Vol. 7, Doc. 6).
Mar 31. The Peter Wilhelm Müller Foundation awards him and D. Hilbert an honorary prize for achievements in the mathematical sciences.
Apr 4. For the first time since December 1917, attends a meeting of the PAW.
Apr 11. Communicates Weyl 1918b to the PAW, explaining that it contains an interesting hypothesis which is nevertheless unfruitful for physics.
Apr 18. Asks the plenary session of the PAW whether he should present a manuscript, Weyl 1918b, which is physically untenable. W. Nernst requests that Einstein add his objections to the manuscript. The PAW suggests postponement until Einstein has communicated further with the author.
Apr 26. Chairs the DPG session in celebration of M. Planck’s 60th birthday. Delivers his talk “Planck als wissenschaftliche Persönlichkeit,” published as “Motives of Research” (Vol. 7, Doc. 7).
before Apr 27. At the prompting of G. Nicolai, suggests to Hilbert and others a collective appeal, to be individually composed and addressed to neutral countries as a token of the international spirit of Germany’s intellectuals.
May 2. Communicates Weyl 1918b and his own “Supplement” (Vol. 7, Doc. 8) to the PAW.
May 10. Elected member of the advisory committee of the DPG.
May 16. Submits “The Energy Theorem in the General Theory of Relativity” and “Supplement to the Correction” (Vol. 7, Doc. 9) to the PAW.
Jun 12. Signs divorce agreement.
Jun 14. Lectures on an edge phenomenon observed in X-ray images indicating total reflection, and on the conservation of energy in the general theory of relativity.
Jun 20. Lectures “Über eine von Levi-Civita und Weyl gefundene Vereinfachung der Riemannschen Theorie der Krümmung und über die hieran sich knüpfende Weylsche Theorie der Gravitation und Elektrizität” to the PAW.
Jun 21. Publishes review of H. Weyl’s Raum–Zeit–Materie (Vol. 7, Doc. 10).
Jun 29. Leaves for Ahrenshoop with Elsa Einstein and her daughters Margot and Ilse.
Jul 16. Writes an expert opinion for Anschütz & Co. (Vol. 7, Doc. 11).
Aug 16–18. In reply to E. Meyer and H. Zangger’s proposal to explore the possibility of a joint appointment at the University of Zurich and at the ETH, Einstein declines, but offers to hold guest lectures of 5–6 weeks’ duration twice a year.
Aug 24. Returns to Berlin from Ahrenshoop vacation.
Aug 31. Admission of adultery with his cousin Elsa is introduced as cause for divorce in legal proceedings of November 1918.
Sep 30–Feb 1, 1919. Offers a course on relativity at the University of Berlin, Thursdays, 2–4 P.M. First lecture recorded on October 11.
Oct 17. Communicates a paper by L. Lichtenstein, “Über einige Eigenschaften der Gleichgewichtsfiguren rotirender homogener Flüssigkeiten, deren Teilchen einander nach dem Newtonschen Gesetz anziehen,” and Born, M. and Lande 1918 to the PAW.
before Oct 18. Nobel Committee for Physics invites Einstein to submit a nomination for the 1919 Nobel Prize.
Oct 22. The Philosophical Faculty of the University of Zurich approves E. Meyer’s suggestion for periodic lectures by Einstein.
Nov 7. Is granted an annual cost of living allowance of 1,152 M, due to the war, retroactive as of April 1918; 648 M retroactively for the period July 1917 through March 1918; and two one-time payments of 1,000 M each in September and November 1918, by the Ministry of Education.
Nov 9. Abdication of the German emperor. Einstein makes a speech to the Students’ Council in the Reichstag, and has brief audience with F. Ebert, head of the first republican government.
Nov 13. Addresses the Bund “Neues Vaterland”: draft statement published as Vol. 7, Doc. 13.
Nov 16. Signs an appeal to join the Demokratische Partei. His name is affixed to a call for the founding of the Demokratischer Volksbund. In the Berliner Tageblatt, declares that he has no intention of joining the organization, and that he is not a member of the Demokratische Partei.
Nov 20. First hearing before the Zurich district court in the divorce proceedings filed by Mileva Einstein-Marie. Einstein does not appear. His interrogation before a Berlin court has been postponed.
Nov 29. “Dialogue on Objections to the Theory of Relativity” (Vol. 7, Doc. 14). “Comment on E. Gehrcke’s Note ‘On the Ether’” (Vol. 7, Doc. 15).
Dec 7. Affidavit acknowledging receipt of stocks and shares from Rudolf Einstein as Elsa’s dowry, to be transferred to her or to her children upon his death.
Dec 12. Statement to the Verein Allgemeine Nährpflicht (Vol. 7, Doc. 16).
Dec 23. Interrogated by the Berlin municipal court at the request of the Zurich district court in his divorce case.
Jan 5. Spartakus uprising in Berlin.
before Jan 9. Travels with Elsa Einstein to Switzerland.
Jan 9. E. Warburg nominates Einstein for the Nobel Prize in Physics for the quantum hypothesis, the theory of relativity, and the theory of gravitation.
Jan 15. Communist leaders K. Liebknecht and R. Luxemburg murdered.
Jan 19. M. Planck nominates Einstein for Nobel prize in physics for general relativity, for its definition of inertia and gravitation, and for thus providing a novel foundation to mechanics. Elections for the German National Assembly.
Jan 20. A 24-hour course on the theory of relativity by Einstein is scheduled to begin at the University of Zurich, to last until 20 February. In Zurich, resides at Pension Sternwarte.
after Jan 23. Co-signs “Erklärung in Sachen Liebknecht-Luxemburg” drafted by the Liga zur Beförderung der Humanität (Menschheitsbund).
Jan 27. Registers his change of address from Berlin to Zurich, Hochstr. 37/Merz.
Jan 30–31. S. Arrhenius nominates Einstein for the Nobel Prize in Physics for fundamental work on Brownian motion and related problems.
Feb 3. Announces that he will offer a course for war veterans during intermediate semester on theory of relativity at the University of Berlin. Began holding these lectures after his return from Zurich at the end of February.
Feb 7. H. Weyl expects a “big dispute” with Einstein about Weyl’s “new extension of the theory of relativity” in the Physics Colloquium to take place that evening.
Feb 8. As member of Freundes-Rat des Internationalen Jugend-Bundes et al., co-signs “Aufruf an die freie Jugend aller Stände und Völker.”
Feb 11. F. Ebert elected Reichspräsident.
Feb 14. Divorce from Mileva Einstein-Maric.
Feb 21. K. Eisner, prime minister of Bavaria, member of the Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, is assassinated.
before Feb 23. Returns from Switzerland.
Feb 23. In home of L. Landau, discusses founding of an “Akademie für die Wissenschaft des Judentums.”
Mar 4. The Department of Education, Canton of Zurich, grants Einstein a 24-hour course on theoretical physics in summer semester 1919, with an honorarium of 1,200 fr.
Mar 15. KWIP board of directors informs physics institutions in Germany that research stipends are available. The KWIP has 81,000 M at its disposal.
April. A “Davis” typewriter is purchased for his secretary, Ilse Einstein, for 900 M.
Apr 7. Bavarian Soviet Republic is declared in Munich.
Apr 10. Divorce decree is delivered by a court bailiff to Einstein. Submits “Do Gravitational Fields Play an Essential Role in the Structure of the Elementary Particles of Matter?” (Vol. 7, Doc. 17) to the PAW.
Apr 11 to 15. Delivers a 1.5-hour popular lecture on “Grundgedanken der Relativitätstheorie” in the Viktoria-Luisen-Schule at the invitation of Sozialistischer Studentenverein to raise money for the organization.
Apr 24. Submits “Comment about Periodical Fluctuations of Lunar Longitude, Which So Far Appeared to Be Inexplicable in Newtonian Mechanics” (Vol. 7, Doc. 18) to the PAW.
before Apr 26. Joins a commission constituted to examine charges concerning German conduct in war, with findings to be published in Germany.
Apr 28–Aug 15. Offers a course on relativity theory at the University of Berlin, Sundays, 5:30–7 P.M. (see also Vol. 7, Doc. 19).
Summer semester. Course in theoretical physics at the University of Zürich. Draws 15 students and 22 auditors.
May 1–3. Bavarian Soviet Republic defeated by the Reichswehr and the Bavarian Freikorps.
May 7. Co-signs the Bund “Neues Vaterland” appeal, “Aufruf der von Kulturvereinen ganz Deutschlands und von Einzelpersonen unterzeichnet werden soll.” The Allies hand the peace treaty to the German delegation at Versailles.
May 9. Elected member of the executive committee of the DPG. Presents Kossel and Sommerfeld 1919 to the DPG.
May 15. Lectures at the PAW on “Eine Veranschaulichung der Verhältnisse im sphärischen Raum” and “Über die Feldgleichungen der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie vom Standpunkte des kosmologischen Problems und des Problems der Konstitution der Materie.” The latter is a summary of the paper submitted to the PAW on 10 April (Vol. 7, Doc. 17).
May 25. Agrees to serve as a patent expert in a case on optical and physico-chemical phenomena at the request of Allgemeine Gesellschaft für chemische Industrie m.b.H.
May 29. Total solar eclipse observed by two British expeditions, one in Principe, in the Gulf of Guinea, the other in Sobral, in northeastern Brazil.
Jun 2. Marries Elsa Löwenthal in Berlin.
Jun 25. Registers his change of address from Zurich to Berlin.
Jun 26. R. Rolland’s “Un Appel: Fiere declaration d’intellectuels” with Einstein among thirty-five signatories, is published in L’Humanite.
Jun 28. Leaves for Switzerland. Will commute between Zurich and Lucerne, where his ill mother Pauline resides at his sister Maja’s home. Treaty of Versailles signed.
Jul 8. The Department of Education, Canton Zurich, while not approving a regular visiting appointment, grants Einstein a 24-hour course on special topics in theoretical physics in winter semester 1919–20 at the University of Zurich.
Jul 10. The Medical Faculty of the University of Rostock votes to confer an honorary doctorate in medicine on Einstein.
after Jul 20. Promises M. Planck he will remain in Berlin.
Jul 24. “Comment on the Preceding Note” (of Albert von Brunn, “On Mr. Einstein’s Remark about the Irregular Fluctuation of Lunar Longitude with an Approximate Period of the Rotation of the Lunar Nodes”)” (Vol. 7, Doc. 22) is presented to the PAW.
Jul 31. Weimar Constitution adopted.
ca. Aug 5. A meeting of Koch family members takes place in Zurich. Einstein probably participates.
Aug 7. Leaves Zurich for Schaffhausen.
Aug 8. Visits with the Habichts in Schaffhausen.
Aug 9. Arrives in Benzingen.
Aug 15. Returns to Berlin. Decides not to lecture in winter term because of overwork.
Sep 3. Is aware that the photographs taken by the two British eclipse expeditions are good, but that the results of their evaluation have not yet been published.
after Sep 21. His signature on preface of first printing of Arco et al. 1919 was printed without his approval. He withdraws from co-editorship.
Sep 22. First results of the test of Einstein’s general theory of relativity by the British solar eclipse expeditions communicated to Einstein by H. A. Lorentz (Vol. 9, Doc. 110).
Oct 3. Participates in the first session of the conference of Kartell der deutschen Akademien, advocates freedom for individuals to act as they wish in international relations.
Oct 4. Holds discussion with leading Zionists on Hebrew University. Mentions P. Epstein and perhaps also P. Ehrenfest as prospective professors (Vol. 9, Docs. 122 and 136).
Oct 8. Moszkowski 1919 is published, in which a full confirmation of Einstein’s prediction on bending of light is claimed.
Oct 9. Signs his notice “A Test of the General Theory of Relativity” (Vol. 7, Doc. 23), reporting on Lorentz’s telegram.
Oct 10. With H. G. Kessler, G. Nicolai, and others, discusses plan for distributing several million printed volumes in Russia (“Volksbüchereiprojekt”).
after Oct 13. Signs the appeal “Für den Aufbau des jüdischen Palästina.”
Oct 17. “A Test of the General Theory of Relativity” (Vol. 7, Doc. 23) is published.
Oct 18. Leaves Berlin for two weeks to stay with the Ehrenfests in Leyden.
Oct 25. Attends meeting of the Royal Academy of Sciences in Amsterdam, at which Lorentz informally announces results of British eclipse expeditions confirming Einstein’s prediction of light deflection by gravitation.
Oct 28. Visits at W. Julius’s home in Utrecht.
Nov 2. Planned return from Leyden to Berlin.
Nov 4. The Berlin University bursar reports that Einstein received 137 M and 20 pfennig lecture fees for summer and Zwischensemester 1919.
Nov 6. Joint meeting of the Royal Society and Royal Astronomical Society hears the report on the verification of the theory of general relativity by the British eclipse expeditions.
Nov 13. Presents M. Born and O. Stern, “Über die Oberflächenenergie der Kristalle und ihren Einfluß auf die Kristallgestalt” and Jakob Grommer, “Über das Energiegesetz der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie” to the PAW.
Nov 14. Applies to Berlin police for an entry visa and a 10-day residence permit for Maja Winteler-Einstein and Josephine Tobler. They will move his ill mother Pauline from Switzerland to Berlin.
Nov 17. “Leo Arons as Physicist” (Vol. 7, Doc. 24).
Nov 18. In testimony before the Committee on Investigation inquiring into the German military’s conduct of the war, General P. von Hindenburg launches the “stab-in-the-back” (“Dolchstoß”) legend.
Nov 25. Departs for Rostock, where he resides with M. Schlick.
Nov 26. The Prussian Constituent Assembly resolves to request that the Prussian state cabinet, in agreement with the Reich state cabinet, seek adequate funding for facilitating further rela-tivistic research in collaboration with other nations, and also to support Einstein’s own research.
Nov 26–28. Participates in the 500th anniversary of the University of Rostock, where he receives an honorary doctorate from the medical faculty.
Nov 28. “Time, Space, and Gravitation” (Vol. 7, Doc. 26) is published.
Nov 29 or 30. Returns from Rostock.
Nov 30. Participates in a discussion of specialists on the economic situation of Germany.
Dec 3. Interview with New York Times: “Einstein Expounds His New Theory.”
Dec 9. Ministerial decree granting Einstein a salary raise from 12,000 M to 18,000 M.
Dec 10. Elsa Einstein describes the intense public interest, the many letters, interviewers, and photographers who daily intrude upon their household.
Dec 12. The Council of the Royal Astronomical Society selects Einstein as recipient of the society’s Gold Medal.
Dec 14. Is asked whether he would consider an offer for the chair of theoretical physics at the University of Zurich (Vol. 9, Doc. 214). A photograph of Einstein on the cover of Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung, with caption likening his achievements to those of Copernicus, Kepler, and Newton.
Dec 16. Under the auspices of the Bund “Neues Vaterland” delivers a speech in honor of P. Colin (Vol. 7, Doc. 27).
Dec 17. Takes part in a meeting of board of directors of DPG on reorganizing the publications of the DPG.
Dec 18. In interview in Berlin, dismisses false rumors that he will accept a call to the future university in Jerusalem. He also states that he is neither a Communist, nor an anarchist.
before Dec 20. Accepts invitation to join the editorial board of Mathematische Annalen as editor responsible for physics.
Dec 20. Withdraws offer to lecture at University of Zurich during summer semester of 1920.
after Dec 20. Once again declines E. Meyer’s inquiry as to whether he would accept a professorship at the University of Zurich.
Dec 25. “Induction and Deduction in Physics” (Vol. 7, Doc. 28) is published.
Dec 28. Pauline, Maja, a nurse, and Dr. J. Tobler arrive in Berlin from Switzerland.
Dec 30. “Immigration from the East” (Vol. 7, Doc. 29) is published. At meeting of the DPG with Vieweg on the new journal of the DPG and a merger of several abstracting journals into one, signs a report introducing new measures for the publication of the society’s Verhandlungen.
Becomes third chairman of the Verein zur Gründung und Erhaltung einer Akademie für die Wissenschaft des Judentums.
early 1920. Appeal signed by F. Haber, A. von Harnack, G. Müller, W. Nernst, M. Planck, H. Rubens, H. Struve, and E. Warburg for contributions by industry to the Einstein Donation Fund.
Jan 9. The Council of the Royal Astronomical Society does not confirm its earlier decision to award Einstein its Gold Medal.
Jan 10. Treaty of Versailles comes into effect.
Jan 15. Lectures on “Das Trägheitsmoment des Wasserstoff-Moleküls” to the PAW. At the same session, signs a motion to elect A. Sommerfeld and P. Debye as corresponding members.
Jan 17. L. S. Ornstein nominates Einstein for the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1920, for general relativity and the theory of gravitation.
Jan 24. Is recommended for Nobel Prize by H. A. Lorentz, W. Julius, P. Zeeman, and H. Kamerlingh Onnes: “By making progress in the field of gravitation for the first time since Newton, he has placed himself among the first tier of physicists of all time.”
Jan 26. Initiates and signs declaration in support of G. Nicolai (Vol. 7, Doc. 32).
Feb 4. Starts a series of ten one-hour lectures for the Greater Berlin Adult Education Program on kinematics, equilibrium of bodies, and relativity.
Feb 5. Probably gives first Thursday evening lecture on relativity of the winter semester 1919/20 at the University of Berlin.
Feb 9. The Leidsch Universiteitsfonds nominates him to special professorship at the University of Leyden.
Feb 12. His weekly lecture at the University of Berlin is broken up by students protesting against his open admission policy.
Feb 13. “Uproar in the Lecture Hall” (Vol. 7, Doc. 33) is published. In telephone statement to C. H. Becker, declares that press accounts of the uproar are tendentious; sees no reason for remonstrating against the presence of nonstudents. “Utter chaos” (“wüste Lärmszenen”) did not take place.
Feb 14. The Ministry of Education publishes a statement on the events at Einstein’s lecture of 12 February. The protest against admission of unauthorized persons was not political, even less anti-Semitic. The next lecture will be delivered as a public one in the Auditorium Maximum of the university on Friday, 6 P.M.
Feb 17. States conditions for further participation in his classes in Berliner Tageblatt.
Feb 18. The Student Committee of the University of Berlin confirms that there was no uproar at Einstein’s lecture, and blames the newspapers for using the events for their own purposes. Einstein’s statement on founding of Hebrew University, possibly solicited by H. Bergmann (see Vol. 9, Doc. 266) and intended for publication in brochure.
Feb 19. Berlin students apologize to Einstein for disturbances at his lecture (Vol. 9, Doc. 320).
Feb 20. Pauline Einstein dies. Continues his lectures to a packed Auditorium Maximum at the University of Berlin. At session of the DPG, M. von Laue presents the photographs taken by the British solar eclipse expeditions proving light deflection by the Sun.
Feb 21. Is elected board member of the Deutsches Museum, Munich.
Feb 23. Pauline Einstein is buried in the Maxstr. cemetery of Berlin-Schöneberg.
Mar 13. Kapp Putsch in Berlin.
Mar 14. Largest general strike on record in Germany. Ebert–Bauer cabinet takes refuge in Dresden, then Stuttgart.
Mar 17. Military coup fails, Kapp resigns as chancellor.
Apr 4. “An Exchange of Scientific Literature” (Vol. 7, Doc. 36) is published.
Apr 5. Sends reply to Central-Verein deutscher Staatsbürger jüdischen Glaubens (Vol. 7, Doc. 37).
before Apr 7. Completes “Ether and the Theory of Relativity” (Vol. 7, Doc. 38).
Apr 8. Submits “Propagation of Sound in Partly Dissociated Gases” (Vol. 7, Doc. 39) to the PAW.
Apr 9. Is elected foreign member of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters.
before Apr 19. Is a sponsor of the Anglo-American University Library for Central Europe (see Vol. 9, Doc. 379).
Apr 23. Is elected corresponding member of the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences.
around Apr 27. Meets for the first time with N. Bohr in Berlin.
after May 4. Travels to the Netherlands.
May 6. Arrives in Utrecht.
May 7. Arrives in Leyden.
May 11. Co-signs nomination of M. von Laue as ordinary member of the PAW.
May 14. Visits at H. A. Lorentz’s home.
May 17. French and Belgian troops leave the cities in Germany that they had occupied.
May 19. Lectures on “Raum und Zeit in der neueren Physik” at the University of Leyden. His salary as director of the KWIP is doubled to 2,500 M.
May 29. Inducted as foreign member into the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences.
May 30. Co-signs an appeal in favor of the republican constitution that condemns violence and warns of the danger of destructive criticism to political freedom.
Jun 1. Arrives in Berlin.
Jun 2. Awarded the Barnard Medal of Columbia University.
Jun 6. General elections in Germany.
Jun 12. With Ilse Einstein, leaves Berlin for Oslo at the invitation of the Norwegian Students’ Union.
Jun 14. Margot Löwenthal’s last name is officially changed to “Einstein.”
Jun 15. Delivers his first lecture in Oslo on special relativity.
Jun 17. Second lecture in Oslo on general relativity.
Jun 18. Third lecture in Oslo on cosmological consequences of general relativity. Is elected honorary member of the Norwegian Students’ Association.
Jun 24. Arrives in Copenhagen.
Jun 25. Lecture on “Gravitation und Geometrie” to the Royal Danish Astronomical Society in the ceremonial hall of the Technical University of Copenhagen.
Jun 28. Einstein and Ilse leave Denmark for Germany.
Jun 29. Arrives in Berlin.
Jul 1. Takes the oath of allegiance to the national constitution.
Jul 5–16. International conference of Germans and Allies at Spa.
Jul 11. Statement to the German Central Committee for Foreign Relief (Vol. 7, Doc. 40).
after Jul 11. Statement on the Quaker Relief Effort (Vol. 7, Doc. 41).
Jul 16. Completes “To the ‘General Association for Popular Technical Education’” (Vol. 7, Doc. 42).
Jul 17. Presents lecture “Grundlagen der Relativitätstheorie” at the University of Hamburg.
Jul 24. “To the ‘General Association for Popular Technical Education’” (Vol. 7, Doc. 42).
Jul 25. “On New Sources of Energy” (Vol. 7, Doc. 43) is published.
Jul 26. Is nominated to special professorship by the Leyden University council for three years with annual remuneration of 2,000 guilders.
Aug 2. The first attack of P. Weyland on Einstein.
Aug 3. “Comment on the Paper by W. R. Heß, ‘Contribution to the Theory of the Viscosity of Heterogeneous Systems’” is received (Vol. 7, Doc. 44).
Aug 24. Present at first meeting of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft deutscher Naturforscher zur Erhaltung reiner Wissenschaft e. V. in the Berlin Philharmonic Hall. Speakers are P. Weyland and E. Gehrcke.
Aug 27. “My Response. On the Anti-Relativity Company” (Vol. 7, Doc. 45). Rumor published in Berliner Tageblatt that Einstein plans to leave Germany as a result of hate campaign against him.
Sep 2. Second meeting against relativity at the Philharmonic Hall.
Sep 11. Aphorism signed: “Auch in wissenschaftlichen Dingen wird die herrschende Meinung durch das Urteil Weniger bestimmt. Nur wenige nehmen die Mühe auf sich, sich (selbst) ihr Urteil selbst zu bilden. Albert Einstein” [70 447].
Sep 13. Leaves Berlin for Kiel, Bad Nauheim, Stuttgart, Sigmaringen, Benzingen, Leyden, and Hannover.
Sep 15. Lectures on “Raum und Zeit im Lichte der Relativitätstheorie” at Kiel Autumn Week for Arts and Sciences.
Sep 20. Start of the 86th meeting of the GDNÄ in Bad Nauheim.
Sep 21. At the business meeting of the DPG in Bad Nauheim, participates in the discussion of a proposed fusion of Zeitschrift für Physik and Annalen der Physik. Queen Wilhelmina issues decree confirming Einstein’s appointment as Special Professor at the University of Leyden.
Sep 22. Elected to membership of the Scientific Committee of the GDNÄ.
Sep 23. Opens combined mathematical and physical sections of the Bad Nauheim meeting dedicated to relativity theory.
Sep 24. “A Confession” (Vol. 7, Doc. 37). Elsa Einstein joins him in Bad Nauheim.
Sep 26. Closing of the Bad Nauheim meeting.
Sep 28. In Stuttgart, delivers a lecture at the Verein “Schwäbische Sternwarte” for the establishment of an observatory.
after Sep 29. Draft on the “Contribution of Intellectuals to International Reconciliation” (Vol. 7, Doc. 47) is completed.
Oct 1. Is offered a special lectureship at Princeton University.
Oct 2. “Grüsse an die norwegischen Studenten” (Vol. 10, Doc. 141) is published.
Oct 4. The minister of finance allocates 200,000 M for the purchase of a spectrograph from Carl Zeiss Company, Jena. The government of Potsdam has no objections to the construction plan.
Oct 6. Meets his sons Hans Albert and Eduard in Sigmaringen and takes them to Benzingen. The ministry of education publishes Einstein’s letter to K. Haenisch (Vol. 10, Doc. 137) to deny rumors that Einstein is leaving Germany for a foreign university.
Oct 16–Mar 15. Is listed as offering course on various topics in theoretical physics at the University of Berlin.
Oct 21. Arrives in Leyden.
Oct 25–31. “Magnet-Woche” at the University of Leyden.
Oct 27. Presents “Ether and the Theory of Relativity” as inaugural lecture in Leyden.
Nov 2. Visits Spinoza House in Rijnsburg.
Nov 3. Lectures in Hannover.
Nov 7. Returns to Berlin.
after Nov 11. “Private Expert Opinion for Telefunken on the Patents of Meissner and Kühn” (Vol. 7, Doc. 48).
Nov 15. First session of the League of Nations is held in Geneva.
Nov 20. “Response to Ernst Reichenbächer, ‘To What Extent Can Modern Gravitational Theory Be Established without Relativity?’” (Vol. 7, Doc. 49) is signed.
after Dec 8. “Brief Outline of the Development of the Theory of Relativity” (Vol. 7, Doc. 50) is signed.
Dec 15. Co-signs petition to pardon ten commissars of the Hungarian Soviet Republic.
Dec 31. Awarded the Order Pour le merite for Science and the Arts (Peace Class).